Flora
 

At extreme limitation of woods in Kazakhstan, components only 4 % of all regions of republic, the East Kazakhstan region takes a special place on stocks of wood and hunting resources. Here 70 % of woods of Republic are concentrated almost. Chronic underfinancing of nature protection actions doesn't allow to make protection of an animal and flora up to the mark.

The area of woods of region has decreased as a result of the last fires, and also injurious autocratic cabins in great volumes and defeats by wreckers on the big areas in unique tape pine forests of territory adjoining to Irtysh at low wood restoration.

 

 

The uncontrollable industrial cabins spent in darkly-coniferous woods of Rudnuy Altai, cause to flora not a smaller loss, than autocratic cabin. At bankruptcy and closing large timber cuttings the enterprises the greatest volumes of preparations were a share small lumberers who aren't engaged in building timber carrying vessel's roads and choose basically ripe plantings, nearby to settlements and existing roads. Thus in the remote large forests there is an accumulation the reharmonous wood.

Threat for a biological variety of woods are forest fires in which result wood plantings perish, fauna, ecological conditions of region worsen, level of ground waters decreases, there are irreversible processes of desertification. Only for last fifteen years with 2000 for 2015 in territory of wood fund of region fires it is destroyed over 5052 thousand in hectare. At existing volumes woodlands it is required more than 100 years only on restoration of the wood grounds which were lost from fires.

 

 

 

 

Fauna

With the beginning of economic reforms and opening of borders to Kazakhstan the stream of foreign tourists, hunters was observed of trophies. Trophy business has carried away also public associations of hunters which of body on protection and rational use of fauna have turned to users. The aspiration to extract elite animals leads eliminarex limen from populations of the most powerful, more often average of the age individuals — the most valuable manufacturers and, finally, degradation of populations. As a result of selective and mass elimination adult males in a domestic hunting economy antiselection is carried out, the best genofund is destroyed, the structure of populations that conducts to decrease reproductionaly potential and to reduction of number of animals is destabilized.

Under the threat there is a population of the marals which number decreases not only at the expense of trophy, but also poacherings hunting for extraction horns which have great demand in the Peoples Republic of China. According to the account of principal views of animals number of the majority of animals and birds is on the bottom limit of level from optimum possible for conditions of habitats.

 

Dynamics of number of wild animals and birds of the East Kazakhstan region
(Information of the East Kazakhstan regional territorial inspection of a wood and hunting economy)

 

 

 

The account of the wild animals brought in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan
(Information of the East Kazakhstan regional territorial inspection of a wood and hunting economy)

 

 

Fish economy
(The data of the Altay branch of the Research-and-production Center of a fish economy)
Valuable rare species of fishes

The pool of the Top Irtysh on existing zoogeographical division of continental reservoirs concerns the West Siberian site of the Siberian district of a ice-sea province. Now fish fauna the complex is presented by 26 kinds of the fishes concerning 18 families and 22 sorts. From them to the rare valuable kinds needing preservation of a genofund because of possibility of its loss, concern a sterlet, the Siberian sturgeon, ordinary Hucho taimen and Stenodus leucichthys nelma. Areas of distribution of populations of these kinds of fishes within pool are shown in drawing.

Sterlet, a sturgeon and Irtysh population of Stenodus leucichthys nelma live now only in Irtysh River below the HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION cascade. Till 1940 the Siberian sturgeon (zaysan's population) appeared in to the trade statistics, as trade object on Lake Zaysan. In 1930th years it was on the average caught 0,7 t. A sturgeon annually. After 1940 the data in to the trade statistics is absent, in the eighties the sturgeon has completely dropped out of structure of a fish fauna of the Buhtarminsky water basin. In Irtysh River now meets extremely seldom, by poachers are caught, mainly, not the mature individuals, so-called "buddy". The Siberian sterlet, on the contrary, in Top Irtysh is a usual kind, but forbidden to a craft. In control fishes 2001 in the tideway of the river the sterlet made from 3 to 6 % on the account from all fishes. Individuals of Irtysh population of Stenodus leucichthys nelma extremely seldom meet in the river below a dam of Shulbinsky HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION and up to Republic Kazakhstan border.

Anthropogenous influence on an ecosystem of the Top Irtysh, expressed in creation of some artificial reservoirs, overlapping of migratory ways of fishes by dams, reorganization of structure of a fish fauna, water pollution industrial drains, trade withdrawal, etc., has led to that valuable rare species of fishes have been forced out from community of fishes water basins and actually Irtysh River between hydroknots. So, Stenodus leucichthys nelma so-called" buhtarma-zaysan "populations (is more correct -"zaysan-chernoirtysh") doesn't appear in industrial statistics since 1956 (average annual volume fishes in the thirties - 26 tons, in 40 - 4 tons). Till the end of 80th years individual copies of Stenodus leucichthys nelma were caught at subglacial not water fishes in Zaysan near to Black Irtysh mouth, last years even one copy of Stenodus leucichthys nelma isn't present data on capture. Hucho taimen never appeared in industrial statistics since its population is dated for a river network where the regular craft of fish isn't conducted. Ordinary Hucho taimen now meets in the right inflows of Irtysh - in the rivers: Both, Ulba, Kurshim, Buktyrma.

 

Fish fauna of reservoirs

The overwhelming volume of bioproduction is formed in water basins, and the rivers play a considerable role in reproduction of fish stocks. Thus the Top Irtysh pool represents not the sum composed of isolated reservoirs, and a single whole, a macroecosystem. Therefore the question on coherence of biocenoses of separate parts of pool, on ways and possibilities of an exchange of genofunds between them is very important. In the table the structure of a fish fauna in a number of reservoirs is presented, and is appreciable that in the rivers the biodiversity is more. The structure of ihtiocenosa in the rivers is steadier against external influences, and akklimatizants here have less advantages over natives, than in water basins.

 

List of a fish fauna of the main reservoirs of the East Kazakhstan region

Kinds of fishes

Reservoirs

Black Irtysh River

Buhtar-

minsky storage facility

Storage facility

of Ust-Kamegorosk

Irtysh River from hydroelectric power station of Ust-Kameno-

gorsk to the Shulbinsky storage facility

Shulbinsky storage facility

Irtysh River below Shulbinsky hydroelectric power station

The sturgeon Siberian

-

-

-

-

-

+

Acipenser ruthenus

-

-

-

-

-

+

Hucho taimen

-

-

-

+

-

+

Stenodus leucichthys nelma

-

-

-

-

-

+

Coregonus albula ladogensis

-

+

+

+

+

+

Coregonus peled

-

+

+

-

-

-

Thymallus

-

-

+

+

-

-

Pike

+

+

-

+

+

+

Lota lota

+

+

-

+

+

+

Lethenteron kessleri

-

-

-

+

-

+

Sander

+

+

+

+

+

+

The perch ordinary

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gymnocephalus cernua

+

+

+

+

+

+

Cyprinus carpio

+

+

-

+

+

+

Crucian gold

+

+

-

-

+

+

Crucian silver

+

+

-

-

+

+

Ninca tinca

+

+

-

+

+

+

Leuciscus idus

+

+

-

-

-

+

Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rutilus rutilus lacustris

+

+

+

+

+

+

Abramis brama Linnaeu

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gobio gobio cynocephalus

+

-

-

+

-

+

Cottus sibiricus

-

-

+

+

-

+

Phoxinus phoxinus

-

-

-

+

-

+

Cobitis melanoleuca (Nichols)

+

+

-

-

+

+

Hoemacheilus barbatulus toni

-

-

-

+

-

-

Quantity(amount) akklimatizants

3

5

4

4

4

4

Quantity(amount) of economic valuable kinds

11

13

7

11

11

15

Quantity(amount) of kinds only

15

16

10

18

14

22

The note - list of kinds on reservoirs is given without kinds of fishes meeting only in appendage river system;
"+" - Is present at structure of ihtiofauna; "-" - Is absent in structure of ihtiofauna.

 

Fishery condition

 

The East Kazakhstan region possesses extensive water fund, the majority of reservoirs are fish-economicals. Now protection and use of fish stocks far aren't optimum. In the Buktyrminsky storage facility 6,0-9,0 thousand tons of fish, in Shulbinsky - 100-360 tons, in Lake Alakol - 200 tons, Irtysh River - 5-15 t, region lakes - 10-15 t is extracted annually.

Fishing on fish-economical to reservoirs of the East Kazakhstan region for 2010 has made 2369,00 tons.

 

Fishery condition on the Shulbinsky storage facility

The Shulbinsky storage facility is average efficiency a reservoir. Now the Shulbinsky storage facility is, despite adverse for reproduction of fishes the hydrological mode, the fishery reservoir of the East Kazakhstan region second for value. A basis of extraction of fish make small fry and a perch, and also the bream. Gradually increase number and catchings of a pike perch. Process of formation of biocenoses of a storage facility isn't finished yet to what the facts of occurrence and fast distribution of a crucian narrow body and river of narrow body a cancer testify.

Catches of fishes differ, as in parts storage facilitys, and on seasons of year. Are least productive catches in the winter (0,39 – 0,49 kg / a network) and in the autumn (0,54 – 0,99 kg / a network), in the spring and in the summer fishing silt networks raises in 2 – 3 times (1,4 – 2,71 kg / a network). The highest fishing during all seasons of year are characteristic for an average part of a storage facility (0,99 – 2,6 kg / a network). The Most productive not water fishing isn'ted in the bottom part of a storage facility, and at fluctuations on a reservoir from 1,0 to 150 kg, on the average makes 40,5 kg that a little below indicators of last year (48 kg for pritonenie). The general fish efficiency separate parts of a storage facility varies from 73 to 86 kg / hectare, on the average making 79 kg / hectare. With a view of increase of fish efficiency a reservoir and increase of efficiency of reproduction of fishes, employees of the Altay branch, together with workers Zaysan-Irtysh managements fish protection, have been developed necessary volumes of fish-breeding consumption.

For the purpose of optimization of reproduction, use and protection of fish resources of the Shulbinsky storage facility it is recommended:

  • Obligatory introduction not water fishing for the purpose of increase in use of stocks of small fry, a perch, the bream;
  • Use of all resolved set adjusting networks cells, with a view of uniform trade loading on round-up populations of fishes;
  • To spend obligatory volume of actions for installation of artificial spawning areas.

 

Fishery condition on the Buhtarminsky storage facility

The Buhtarminsky storage facility – the most extended and productive reservoir of Verhne-Irtysh pool, gives 80-90 % of general bioproduction. 16 kinds of fishes now live in the Bukhtarminsky storage facility from structure of a native fish fauna, including trade – a pike, a perch, small fry, Leuciscus idus, a tench, a crucian, a burbot, and also akklimatizants – the bream, a pike perch, Coregonus albula ladogensis, Cyprinus carpio, such kinds as a pike, a tench, a crucian, a ruff, a burbot have practically disappeared a sturgeon, Stenodus leucichthys nelma, Hucho taimen, and, a Cyprinus carpio have lost former value in fishing. A basis of extraction of fish make akklimatizants – the bream and a pike perch. Last years when artificial regulation level a mode favors to a fish economy, the increasing role in reproduction of fish starts to play natural vodnost this or that time period. In shallow years, when a high water in the rivers insignificant, fish is spawning, basically, on storage facility coast. In years abounding in water, at a plentiful high water, the most part of fish directs on spawning in the rivers.

The Buhtarminsky storage facility exists hardly more than 40 years. If to consider that in 60-80-s' years were conducted akklimatizants works on installation of new kinds of fishes and invertebrate animals, and also there were adaptive changes of populations of native kinds to new living conditions for this insignificant historical period steady ihtiotsenoz it could not be generated. Succession processes in biocenoses will occur still very long.

Populations of the bream to the middle of 80th years and Coregonus albula ladogensis to the middle of 90th years developed at sufficient security food, selectively eating preferable kinds of a forage; individuals had high rate of increase and fruitfulness. After exhaustion of possibilities of a forage reserve at individuals of these kinds biological indicators have sharply decreased, there were parasitic invasions, disease has increased. As a result superdomination of the bream in a reservoir as a whole and Coregonus albula ladogensis on deep-water sites now in doubt.

In the ratio kinds in community of fishes, fishery which last years becomes more and more selective has a considerable role. Last years there is an excessive demand for a pike perch, its market price in 3-5 times exceeds that on other kinds fish product. Accordingly, the craft orientation moves also. To speak in the conditions of the market about the directed formation of a fish fauna already it is impossible, as it is impossible to predict the future market condition.

Clearly one – on all parameters the Bukhtarminsky storage facility and now, and in the future, will be the basic fishery reservoir of Irtysh pool.

In the spring are high catches with adjusting networks in an lakes-river part where catches reaches 16,3 kg/network in a mouths spaces of the rivers, on the average, 5,17, in the summer of 6,21 kg/network, on the average, 4,02, but to fishery here disturbs excessive growing and high number of cancers. In a mountain part in stavnyh networks ulov 1,32 kg/network a day fluctuates from 0,22 to 3,05, on the average. Silts is during the autumn period almost same, as well as in the summer, on the average, makes 1,28 kg/network, ulovy specialized Coregonus albula ladogensis's networks have appeared low, on the average, 0,9 kg/network.

Actually network fishing prevails over not water. In the summer on a storage facility it is used no more than 20 the showered seines.

Stocks of valuable kinds of fishes in the Bukhtarminsky storage facility gradually decrease. One of the main tasks of regulating bodies is reorientation of a craft from extraction only a pike perch on development of all complex of a trade fish fauna, increase in a share not water catch, the organization of fish processing in the form of a fish flour, forcemeat, canned food, smoked products.

 

 

At the same time, fish stocks of reservoirs of region are that that allow to extract now already from natural reservoirs of 11 thousand t fish production. The rational mode of the fishery, the full account and control for catch fishes, optimization of work of nature protection structures at the expense of elimination of their dissociation and increase in volume of financing of nature protection actions are for this purpose necessary. The next years fish economics sciences the role should increase in management of protection and use of fish stocks.

In the Buhtarminsky storage facility the bream is superdominantom on number, as a result of an overpopulation disease Ligula intestinalis has extended. The basic method of struggle is intensive catching of the bream that is not realized in practice owing to the economic reasons. The increase in a craft of a share not water of silt, expansion of a commodity market of the bream and development of canning manufacture is necessary.

Number of a pike perch is necessary for regulating strictly. Volumes of its extraction should correspond to the confirmed limits. At surplus of stocks of a pike perch in a reservoir its disease dermatofibrosarcoma increases. It is necessary to think over ways and methods of breeding of a pike perch in small storage facilities and lakes of region.

Stocks of Coregonus albula ladogensis annually increase, its rate of increase falls. The priority - to remove measures of its protection as the organism installed in another's community, i.e. to make changes to fishery Rules.

The structure of Alakolsky system of lakes includes two large Lakes - Alakol and Sasykkol. The trade herd of a Balkhash perch Here has remained, is conducted selective silt a sazan. The pike perch is subject to disease dermatofibrosarcoma. Resources invaluable from the consumer point of view of the bream, a crucian will be underused. Creation of the complex scheme of use of fish stocks and breeding of fishes Alakolsky, work on clearing of a number a channel is necessary

 

Development of commodity fish culture on lakes and small storage facilitys of The East Kazakhstan region.

(The data of the Altay branch of the Research-and-production center of a fish economy)

One of the primary goals put in the Concept of development of a fish economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2007-2015, governmental order of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 963 from 10/06/2006, at a stage 2010 – 2012, creation fish clusters commodity sturgeon breeding, perfection of system of protection and reproduction of fish economical reservoirs is confirmed «… creation of steady fishery base of reservoirs, increase of a role of businessmen on conducting a fish economy and improvement of quality of let out production, export of fish production corresponding to standards of the European Union, efficient control commodity fish-breeding economy, developments aqua-culture.
The development program for the period from 2013 till 2015 demands acceptance of following measures:
The further perfection of the legislation in the field of a fish economy;
Creation of a steady coastal infrastructure of fish economical complex;
Working out and realizations of mechanisms of development exchange, option and future trade in fish production;
Creation in various regions of Kazakhstan of commodity sturgeon economy and their maintenance молодью the sturgeon. Formation is repair-uterine livestock of the sturgeon;
Maintenance to reproduction complex of essentially new directions in fish culture;
Perfection of system of preparation and retraining of experts for a fish economy according to the international standards;
Assistance of enterprise activity on manufacture in republic of tools of catch, swimming means, the fish-breeding equipment and mixed fodders, by allocation of grants for repayment of expenses for purchase of the necessary equipment and the preferential taxation within first three years from the moment of putting into operation;
Carrying out of the international exhibitions "Fish and fish products", seminars on protection problems, reproduction, extraction of fish, development of manufacture of new kinds of production and aqua-culture;
Maintenance of a mode of operation of storage facilitys and legislative establishments of an order of expenses of the water which are meeting the requirements of a fish economy;
Working out of complex actions for artificial reproduction of valuable kinds of the fishes who are under the threat of disappearance and fishes, brought in the Red Book of republic. Formation of genofund of collections of valuable kinds of fishes, with formation of the selection-genetic centers and conditions on the maintenance маточного herds of fishes for carrying out of scientific researches;
Position working out about use by users of reservoirs (sites) on extraction, breeding and use brine shrimp of Saline, cancers and others hydrocole and to define an order of their export;
Working out of scientific bases of the directed formation of cenosis of large fish economical reservoirs with the assistance of experts of the adjacent countries in water pools … »

In the Concept of development of a fish economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2007-2015 the retrospective analysis of a condition of a fish economy in Republic for the last period is given the question on commodity fish culture which «… till 90th years of last century successfully developed …, in particular, is mentioned. In the adapted reservoirs commodity fish in annual, two-and three-year fattening was grown up. During the period with 1970 for 1990 the volume of breeding of commodity fish has increased from 0,6 thousand tons to 9,8 thousand tons or has increased in 14,2 times. Such rates of growth on breeding of commodity fish were not in one of republics of the former Union …». In 1985-91 in the East Kazakhstan region works on creation of lake-commodity fish economy (LCFE) in the adapted reservoirs in which quality it was used 18-20 lakes and small storage facilitys of region (Lakes Sibinsky, Balyktykol, Marinovsky, Olemba, State-farm, Shybyndykol, etc., Kamensk, Charsky, Taintinsky storage facilitys were spent. The carp at a stage underyearling and the manufacturer, Coregonus albula ladogensis at a larva stage, RYAR at a stage of a larva and two-years was installed. In the majority of reservoirs were as a result generated or self-reproduced herds (Coregonus albula ladogensis in Lakes Shalkar, Ak-school; a carp in storage facilitys and Lakes Balyktykol, Shybyndykol, Sibinsky, Kenzhebay), or not numerous not reproduced herds (a white cupid and a silver carp in Lakes Sibinsky, Shybyndykol, Kenzhebay). After cessation of work on seeling and to feeding of the installed fishes in the early nineties, in the majority of reservoirs as a result catch and in the course of natural death rate valuable kinds of fishes have disappeared, in others not numerous naturalized herds Coregonus albula ladogensis and a carp with low rate of growth of individuals were generated.

«… Per 1990-2005 the commodity fish culture in Republic actually did not develop. Catch of commodity fish these years about 150 tons were reduced. In transition of Republic to new economic relations the system of state regulation of commodity fish culture has not been fulfilled. Absence of any republican programs on development of the given direction has not allowed subjects of a fish economy to carry out high-grade activity in this sector of branch …». In the East Kazakhstan region in 2002 the decision regional Maslihate from 05/30/2002 № 15/9-II had been confirmed «the Regional Program of development of a fish economy of region for 2002-2004». One of Program points was «… transfer of lakes and small storage facilitys of region to the isolated water use and the organization on them of commodity breeding of fish …». The list of reservoirs, suitable for transfer for a fish economy into which 40 small storage facilitys and 29 lakes of region have entered has been made. Then there has been begun work on transfer of lakes and small storage facilitys to the property for the fish economical purposes.

In spite of the fact that the East Kazakhstan region has the extensive water fund, not all reservoirs are suitable for use in the fish economical purposes. In region there are three categories of reservoirs in the fish economical plan:

  • Without fish and unpromising in the fish economical plan;
  • Having special nature protection value;
  • Suitable for seeding and breeding of valuable kinds of fishes.

Lakes and storage facilitys without fish (for example, Lakes Amrenkul, Batyrkhan, Berkol, Kozylkol, Kurum-baykul the Maloulbinsky storage facility), as a rule, or have a hydrochemical compound unsuitable for ability to live of fishes (many high-mountainous reservoirs), or low temperature indicators and high factor of water exchange (mountain storage facilityes), doing them unpromising for conducting a fish economy.

Seventeen lakes of region it is carried to especially protected on which wildlife management is limited. These objects or are nature sanctuaries and reserves where economic activities in general are forbidden (Markakol), or can be used for the organization of tourism and sports-amateur catch fishes (Sibinsky, Ayir).

More than 100 small reservoirs of region can be used, or is already used in fish economical the purposes. On some reservoirs goes trade catch fishes, but it is necessary to consider, that on a small reservoir after one intensive season catch fish stocks are restored 4-5 years. Therefore in the plan only a craft small reservoirs to use inefficiently. On adapted for breeding of fish lakes and ponds it is possible to receive over 2 thousand tons of valuable fish production of a carp, Coregonus, a silver carp, a white cupid – annually.

Now in region «The Regional program of a sustainable development of agriculture of the East Kazakhstan region for 2006-2010» operates. One of Program points is «… fastening fish economical reservoirs of local value for users on a competitive basis …». The list in which 131 reservoirs is brought is made. The list is confirmed by the Head of administration of region. It is necessary to consider, that reservoirs should be maintained in strict conformity with the established mode of use. For example, autocratic installation, without substantiations the fish economical sciences, confirmed by the special representative the body, new kinds of fishes and беспозвоночных in a reservoir is punished under the law, up to the criminal liability. Besides, wrong conducting a fish economy on reservoirs, without taking into account chemical composition of water and necessary fertilizers, structure local fishfauna, not carrying out of meliorative actions will lead to absence fish economical effect, destruction of grown up fish, will harm to an ecological condition of a reservoir.

Many reservoirs have already found owners. For each concrete reservoir experts of Altay branch Science industrial Center of fish economy defined objects for installation, counted norms of a landing material and developed recommendations about conducting a fish economy. In 2007 Governmental order of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 57 from 1/25/2007 confirms «The Republican scheme of acclimatization and seeding reservoirs» into which materials of Altay branch of Science Industrial Center of fish economy on the East Kazakhstan region have entered. In «to the Scheme …» along with seeding large reservoirs, reservoirs and objects of acclimatization and зарыбления small reservoirs of region are defined.

 


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