The region climate sharp continental, moderated with insufficient humidifying, differs the big variety and includes four climatic zones: steppe, deserted, semidesertic, foothill and mountain areas.

Environmental conditions of flat and mountain areas differ from each other both on a temperature mode, and on an amount of precipitation. Sharp continentality of deserted and semidesertic areas of area considerably smoothes out in mountain and foothill areas.

According to the law width ash values the increase in indicators of radiating balance from 46,1 to 50,6 kcals / square centimeter a year from the north on the south is observed, according to height radiation increases in mountains also.

Weather types in area territory differ on seasons of year in connection with following circulating conditions: in the winter under the influence of the western periphery Mongolian barometering a maximum it is established anticyclone weather type (steady, clear, frosty and cloudless). Influence of the North Atlantic (Azorsky) maximum promotes an establishment cyclone weather type (unstable, warm, cloudy, deposits) both in winter, and in summer the periods. Besides it circulation of atmosphere is influenced in the summer by elevated pressure area over the Arctic ocean, promoting development of summer anticyclones (temperature fall, dryness of air, late frosts). The picture of summer circulation becomes complicated intrusion of tropical air weights from the south and local is mountain-dolinnymi winds (in mountain areas).

The coldest month (January) has monthly average temperature of air-17.-18°С, and in some places-13°S,-27°C. In very warm winters the monthly average temperature in a southwest part of area doesn't fall more low-10°C. Temperature of the warmest month (July) - +16. +23°С. The annual amplitude of temperature is equal 33-41°С. The absolute minimum in separate winters reaches-43,-55°C, and an absolute maximum in the summer +35. +43°С. In the summer distribution of average temperatures in mountains depends on height.

The period without the frosty in mountain and foothill areas lasts less than three months, in other territory - about five months.

Deposits of the warm period are distributed non-uniformly. Around Lake Zaysan drops out less than 100 mm of deposits, and in mountain and foothill areas - 300 mm and are more. The annual amount of precipitation changes accordingly from 165 - 200 mm (in a deserted and semidesertic zone) to 800 - 1500 mm (Orlovka, Small Ulba, a mountain part of Tarbagatay). Deposits of the warm period (April - October) prevail over deposits of the cold period (November - March). It is a characteristic sign of continentality of area. The maximum of deposits in all territory of area is necessary for the summer, more often on second half. However, despite it, the number of cloudy days within summer happens in three-four times less in comparison with clear (the average of cloudy days during the warm period doesn't exceed 6-11 days in a month).

Winter cold and long (5-6 months). The snow cover on area lies down non-uniformly; in mountain and foothill areas its height on the average reaches 60-80 sm and more, and in steppe and semidesertic - doesn't exceed 15-25 sm, in some places does not reach and 15 Non-uniformity залегания a snow cover see causes non-uniform depth of deep freezing soils.

During the winter period on большей parts of territory of area prevail winds of southeast and southern directions, during the warm period - east and northeast. Average speeds of a wind are equal 2,5 - 3,5 m/s. However in separate areas of area strong winds (15 m/s and more) aren't an exception, and the average of days for a year with such wind reaches 18-20. The greatest wind activity is observed in areas of stations Zhangiz-Tobe, Sentry, Zharma. On the average long-term for the osenne-winter period (October - March) here is observed from 70 till 105 days with a strong wind (force of 15 m/s and more).

The area concerns pool of Arctic Ocean, Karsky sea and internal blind drenage areas of Lake Balkhash. The watershed passes on ridges of Tarbagatay and Chingiztau. The main river of pool of Karsky Sea - Irtysh (1700 km, within Kazakhstan). The basic inflows - Bukhtarma, Ulba, Uba, Charms, Kyzylsu, Kurchum. The rivers of Kazakh small mound are shallow, the majority of them - drying up (Altynsu, Shagan, Bugaz, Bakanas, Karakol, Ayaguz). In area 1968 lakes are located. Territories of Lakes are made by 0,37 %. On lake territory are placed very non-uniformly, basically in a Irtysh river basin and its inflows, in high mountains - at Berelsky glaciers. The big reservoirs are dated for valleys of the rivers and intermountain hollows (to Markakol, Alakol, Sasykkol). The largest Lakes of area - Zaysan, Markakol, Alakol and Sasykkol.

Within area, on Southwest Altai is available more than 350 glaciers with a total area of 99,1 square kilometers. They are extended in high mountains. The largest glaciers Big and Small Buhtarminsky. In sources of Buhtarmy  9 glaciers are.

 


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